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In 1792, George, Lord Macartney was appointed Ambassador to the Emperor of China. His prime objective was to negotiate a treaty of commerce and friendship, and to establish a resident Ministry at the court of the Emperor at Peking (Beijing).…

"Of the Muscles of the Four Lesser Toes.
These (like the Muscles of the Fingers) we shall divide into Common and Proper. The Common Muscles of the Toes are such, as have their Tendons inserted into all the lesser Toes, as the Extensor Digitorum…

"Of the Muscles of the Foot
The Foot has seven Muscles properly employ'd in its Motions ... "(Cowper, 1724, Chap. XXXIV)
"Of the Muscles of the Great Toe.
The great Toe is moved by its proper Muscles, which we reckon to be six in number…

"Of the Muscles of the Leg" (Cowper, 1724, Chap. XXXIII).

"Of the Muscles of the Thigh
The Enumeration, Description and Office of the Muscles belonging to this Part, is variously set down by different Authors" (Cowper, 1724, Chap. XXXII).

" Of the Muscles of the Radius.
The Radius is bent and extended in common with the Ulna, or Cubitus; but besides that, it hath also a proper Motion, in which the Carpus together with the Hand is chiefly moved, or turned, either upwards or…

"Of the Muscles of the Wrist, or Carpus.
These are well described by most Authors, and receive their names from their Situation and Use" (Cowper, 1724, Chap. XXX).

"Of the Muscles of the Thumb.
Authors disagree concerning the Number, Rise and Insertions of these Muscles; which may partly proceed from that great Variety to be observ'd in divers Subjects. As they have most commonly appeared to me, I shall…

"Of the Muscles of the Four Fingers
These we shall divide into Common and Proper. The Common Muscles of the Fingers are such, as arise from the external or internal Protuberances of the Os Humeri, and subdividing themselves, are inserted into most,…

"of the Muscles of the Arm, or Os Humeri.
Galen, Jacobus Sylvius, and Vesalius, describe seven Muscles belonging to each Arm, viz. Pectoralis, Deltoides, Teres Major, Latissimus Dorsi, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, and Subscapularis. Arantius, in…

"Of the Muscles of the Cubit.
The lower part of the Arm from the Elbow to the Wrist is called the Cubit, which is bended and extended by five Muscles, namely, Biceps, Brachiaeus Internus, Gemellus, Brachiaeus Externus, and Anconaeus" (Cowper, 1724,…

"Of the Muscles of the Neck
The Muscles of the Neck move the Head secondarily, whence they are esteemed as Common to both. Of these Authors reckon four pair, namely the Longi Colli, the Scaleni, (which according to Falloppius are described amongst…

"Of the Muscles of the Head
The Head is moved by Muscles that are either Common or Proper" (Cowper, Chap. XXII).

"Of the Muscles of the Thorax
The Muscles of the Thorax may be divided into Proper and Common" (Cowper, 1724, Chap. XIX).

"Of the Muscles of the Scapula, or Shoulder-Blade.
These Muscles make the second Division of those relating to the Motion…

"Of the Muscles of the Lower Jaw.
Five Pair of Muscles are employ'd in the Motion of the Lower Jaw: Four of which were described by Vesalius and the preceding Anatomists; but for the Discovery of the fifth we are obliged to Falloppius. To these…

"Of the Muscles of the Larynx
These Muscles of the Larynx are generally divided into Common and Proper" (Cowper, 1724, Chap. XVII).

"Of the Muscles of the Fauces" (Cowper, 1724, Chap. XVI).

"Of the Muscles of the Uvula.
Falloppius mentions the second and third of these Muscles among those of the Fauces; but Riolan first ascribed them to this Part, and call'd them Pterygostaphylinus Internus and Externus. The Discovery of the…
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